What is it?

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease in which the immune system attacks the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). Damage to the nervous system can manifest in a variety of ways, causing disability and impaired quality of life. The degree of neurological damage depends on the affected area and the accumulation of damage over time. The cause of the disease is unknown, and its incidence is higher in women and in the age group between 20 and 40. There is no cure for the disease, but there are effective treatments to prevent its progression.

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Signs & symptoms

A common sign is the appearance of a sudden change in movement or sensation, for example paralysis or weakness of a limb (one or more), a feeling of currents or paresthesia (stinging, tingling sensation), or gait disturbances. Another common sign is a sudden onset of visual impairment - blindness, double vision or blurred vision.
MS has a relapsing-remitting nature, meaning it has periods of flares (appearance of new neurological damage), followed by regressions (periods of improvement of symptoms, without the appearance of new ones, lasting weeks to years). As the disease progresses, the time period between flares shortens, and the damage accumulates.

Diagnosis

A diagnosis of MS starts with a physical examination, including a thorough neurological examination. Additional tests may be:
- Brain imaging (MRI).
- Lumbar puncture (LP) - In this procedure, a sample of the spinal fluid is taken and its properties are examined.
- EMG - This is a test of the function of the nerves and muscles, during which electrical stimulation is given and the response of the nerves and muscles is

Treatment

MS does not have a cure. The goal of treatment is to reduce the amount and severity of flares, thus preventing the damage of the disease. Treatment is divided into acute flares suppression (usually with the help of steroids), and long-term treatment for flares prevention, using drugs that suppress the unwanted activity of the immune system.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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