What is it?

Coagulation is a process in which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, in order to form a clot and hopefully stop bleeding. This process begins almost instantly after a blood vessel has been damaged. The coagulation cascade is a very complex process that involves many different proteins and results in the deposition and maturation of fibrin, which strengthens the platelet plug formed by platelets.Our body's ability to stop bleeding depends on our platelets, coagulation factors and vascular factors.
Each of these proteins, also known as coagulation factors, can be missing or damaged. As a result, the coagulation process may be harmed and this can result in excessive bleeding. Many of these disorders, such as hemophilia, are inherited.

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Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Congenital Factor XI Disorder
- Congenital Factor VIII Disorder
- Antiphospholipid Antibody Disorder
- Congenital Factor IX Disorder
- Defibrination Syndrome

Signs & symptoms

Symptoms depend on the coagulation factor missing and how much is missing. For example, a specific factor can be totally missing or only 30% missing. The symptoms are in accordance with the deficiency. They may include excessive bleeding from trauma or invasive procedures, heavy menstrual bleeding, joint bleeding, nasal bleeding, gum bleeding.


Since many of these disorders are inherited, it is important to thoroughly go through family history. The patient's bleeding history should be carefully examined in events such as childbirth, dental procedures, surgeries etc.
Blood tests-
Blood clotting tests- Prothrombin (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (PTT). These tests determine your clot formation ability. Usually, when there is a coagulation defect, the clotting time will be prolonged.
Factor activity tests- If PT/ PTT is abnormal, and a coagulation defect is suspected, the doctor will test for specific factor levels in your blood.


The treatment depends on the type of disorder and the clinical state. If acute bleeding is present, plasma or other plasma concentrates can be given. In the chronic state, some disorders can be treated with an artificially produced coagulation factor. Other disorders are treated with other means such as medications or blood products. It is important to consult with your doctor before any invasive procedure in order to avoid lifethreatning bleeding.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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