What is it?

Thyroid malignancy occurs in the thyroid cells which are located in the base of the neck. The thyroid gland produces hormones. It occurs as a result of some mutations which allow the cells to grow and multiply. There are several types of thyroid malignancies. Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common form which grows in the follicular cells. It typically affects people ages 30-50. Follicular thyroid cancer arises also from follicular cells and typically affects people older than 50. Hurthle cell cancer is a rare and potentially more aggressive type of follicular thyroid cancer. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is rare and also begins in the follicular cells. It is characterized by rapid growth and affects those who are older than 60. Medullary thyroid cancer begins in the C cells- cells that produce calcitonin hormone. Some thyroid malignancies may have no symptoms at all and the patient will feel pain and swelling only when they become very large. Most of the time, thyroid malignancies are cured with treatment. Females are more likely to have thyroid cancer, as well as those who were exposed to radiation in the head and neck area and those who have certain types of genetic syndromes such as MEN and Cowden’s syndrome. Thyroglossal duct cyst is a common anomaly in the development of the thyroid gland. A thyroglossal duct carcinoma (TGD carcinoma) is very rare, with most being papillary carcinomas. The cause for TGD carcinoma is unknown, and there are no predisposing factors known today.

235 Alikes with Malignant Neoplasm of Thyroid Gland & Thyroglossal Duct

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Malignant Neoplasm of Thyroid Gland & Thyroglossal Duct.

Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Thyroid Cancer
- Thyroid Gland Cancer
- Thyroglossal Duct Cancer

Signs & symptoms

Symptoms of thyroid cancer or thyroglossal duct carcinoma may include a lump in the neck, pain in the neck, voice changes, difficulty swallowing or a swollen lymph node. Many times it can be asymptomatic.


Thyroid malignancies or thyroglossal duct carcinoma are diagnosed in a physical examination, blood test to measure thyroid function and hormone levels and ultrasound imaging. If cancer is suspected, a fine needle aspiration biopsy may be done. Some genetic testing is also possible in the case of medullary thyroid cancer.


Treatment depends on the type and size of the cancer. Some people may only need surveillance and frequent monitoring with ultrasound and blood tests once or twice a year. Others will undergo surgery- the extent of surgery depends on the size and type of tumor. After thyroidectomy the patient must take thyroid hormones for life and some will be also treated with radioactive iodine to destroy remaining thyroid tissue. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are also an option.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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