What is it?

Seizures result from abnormal electrical activity in the brain. There are different kinds of seizures, which can be caused due to different brain pathologies and their different localizations. Examples include stroke, brain tumor, head injury, central nervous system infection and more. Recurrent seizures may be diagnosed as epilepsy but not every seizure is considered to be part of epilepsy (for example, febrile seizures, occurring in children during a febrile illness, are NOT considered to be epileptic seizures). Some seizures can look like staring blankly for a few seconds. Other seizures can manifest as uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs. In some cases, seizures cause loss of consciousness or awareness. Symptoms such as fear, anxiety or Deja vu may also happen. A medical examination must be obtained as soon as possible in any case of first seizure, prolonged seizure and in case of a seizure in the presence of fever, pregnancy or a significant background illness. Tests used to diagnose epilepsy are EEG (electroencephalogram) that measures electrical activity in the brain and imaging of the brain. There are anti-seizure medicines that help prevent seizures. In some cases (especially those that do not respond to medication) surgical procedures (such as brain surgery or vagus nerve stimulator transplantation) may be considered.

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