What is it?

The parathyroid glands are four small glands, located at the center of your neck. These glands secrete parathyroid (PTH) hormone, which controls the level of two important minerals in your body - calcium and phosphorous.
Disorders of the parathyroid gland may cause it to work more, or less, than needed. As a result, the calcium and phosphorous levels in your blood will change as well.
If the glands secrete extra PTH, it called hyperparathyroidism, and your blood calcium rises. In many cases, a benign tumor on a parathyroid gland makes it overactive. Or, the extra hormones can come from enlarged parathyroid glands. Very rarely, the cause is cancer.
If you do not have enough PTH, it called hypoparathyroidism. Your blood will have too little calcium and too much phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders, or genetic conditions.

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Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Hyperparathyroidism

Signs & symptoms

Signs and symptoms may change according to the PTH level. Most commonly, parathyroid disorders occur without any signs or symptoms.
In case you have too much PTH, you may feel muscle weakness, fatigue and depression.
In case you have too little PTH, you might experience tingling in your lips, fingers, and toes, dry hair and skin or muscle cramps.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and medical history, then he or she will perform a physical exam. The following tests will be done next:
Blood and urine tests- to check your calcium and phosphorous levels, and measure PTH (parathyroid hormone).
If a diagnosis is made, your doctor may refer you to further testing in order to check for complications.

Treatment

Treatment differ according to the specific gland disorder.
Your doctor may suggest calcium and vitamin D supplement, or even a surgical treatment for the disease.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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