What is it?

Congenital anomalies of circulatory system include:
-Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistent opening between the aorta and the pulmonary arteries. This opening is normal in a fetus, but typically it closes shortly after delivery. If the opening is small, it may be asymptomatic and will not need treatment, but a large PDA allows poorly oxygenated blood to flow to the baby’s lung and heat, making the heart enlarged and weak.

-Congenital anomalies of pulmonary arteries, such as pulmonary atresia, which is a congenital defect that typically is diagnosed soon after birth. In this condition, the valve through which blood flows from the heart to the lungs, does not form correctly. The blood finds other passages to flow to the lungs, within the heart and its arteries, which are closed soon after birth. This condition is life threatening, and has to be treated for the baby to live. Risk factors for pulmonary atresia is a parent or sibling ith this condition, a mother who was obese before pregancy, smooking before or during preganncy, a mother with uncontrolled diabetes, and maternal usage of severeal medications.

-Aortic coarctation is a narrowing of the aorta, usually present in birth. The Part of the aorta that is typically affected is the part near the ductus arteriosus. Symptoms may not always be present, depending on the severity of narrowing. Sometimes it will be detected in adulthood. The abnormality usually occurs when there are heart defects.

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Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Anomalies of Great Veins
- Congenital Anomalies of Aorta
- Aortic Atresia and Stenosis
- Spinal Vessel Anomaly
- Hypoplasia of spinal vessel
- Spinal arteriovenous malformation
- Gastrointestinal Vessel Anomaly
- Arteriovenous malformation of digestive system vessel
- Arteriovenous malformation of duodenum and jejunum
- Pulmonary Artery Anomalies
- Umbilical Artery Absence or Hypoplasia
- Renal Vessel Anomaly
- Cerebrovascular Anomaly
- Cerebral arteriovenous malformation

Signs & symptoms

-PDA symptoms in a baby may include difficulty eating, failure to thrive, sweating or crying while eating, easy tiring, tachycardia and tachypnea.
-Symptoms of pulmonary atresia may include a blue or gray tones skin baby, difficulty to breath, feeding problems, and fatigue.
-Aortic coarctation symptoms in babies may include difficulty eating, breathing,
sweating, irritability and pale skin. For older people, symptoms may include high blood pressure, headache, muscle weakness, muscle cramps, cold feet, nosebleed and chest pain.


- PDA could be suspected if on a physical exam a heart murmur is heard. PDA is diagnosed with an echocardiogram, a chest X-ray, and an electrocardiogram.
-Diagnosis of pulmonary atresia may include pulse oximetry, chest X-ray, ECG, echocardiogram, cardiac catheterization, and a CT-scan.
-If the narrowing is severe, aortic coarctation is usually diagnosed with a fetus sonogram. Later in life, suspicion of coarctation may arise due to difference in blood pressure between the arms and legs and a heart murmur. Then, diagnosis may be done with an echocardiogram, an ECG, and imaging tests of the chest like CT or MRI, cardiac catheterization may help determine the severity.


-Sometimes, PDA is monitored and if there are not any symptoms, it is not treated. Otherwise, it could be treated with medications- NSAIDs could help close the PDA, a surgery and a catheter procedure can help and close PDA.
-Treatment for pulmonary atresia are prostaglandins to prevent the closure of the
ductus arteriosus, so that blood can continue to flow, just until the correction of the atresia. Procedure for correction of the abnormality are either via catheterization or open heart surgeries.
-Treatment of aortic coarctation also depends on the severity of narrowing and the patient's symptoms. Medication to control blood pressure may be given before the coarctation repairment. For babies, medications to keep the ductus open may be used. In order to correct the coarctation, a few surgical procedures may be recommended, or a balloon angioplasty with stenting.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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