What is it?

Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles.
The testicles are 2 egg-shaped glands located inside the scrotum (a sac of loose skin that lies directly below the penis). The testicles are the male sex glands, producing testosterone and sperm (containing the germ cells).
Almost all testicular cancers start in the germ cells. The two main types of testicular germ cell tumors are seminomas and non-seminomas.
Testicular cancer, like most cancer types, is divided into stages, according to how much it has spread out of the testis into the rest of your body.

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Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Cancer of the testis
- seminoma
- lymphoma of testis
- Leydig cell tumor of testis
- teratoma of testis
- Mixed germ cell tumor of testis

Signs & symptoms

Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer include swelling or discomfort in the scrotum. You may notice a painless lump, sudden build-up of fluid in the scrotum, or mild groin pain.
These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by testicular cancer or by other conditions.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and medical history, then he or she will perform a physical exam. The following tests will be done next:
- Blood tests- to check for tumor markers (Alpha-fetoprotein, β-hCG, LDH)
- Imaging tests such as testicular Ultrasound and CT scan
- Inguinal orchiectomy- a procedure to remove the entire testicle through an incision in the groin. A tissue sample from the testicle is then viewed under a microscope to check for cancer cells.

Treatment

Surgery – to remove the affected testicle is needed for all types of testicular cancers.
Further treatments depend on the type of cancer, its stage and your general health:
- Chemotherapy- medication that will kill cancerous cells or stop their growing.
- Radiation therapy- high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation used to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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