What is it?

Reflux Nephropathy, also known as vesicoureteral reflux, is an abnormal flow of urine from your bladder back up the tubes (ureters) that connect your kidneys to your bladder. This disorder is usually diagnosed among children and infants, and can evolve in two forms: primary or secondary. Primary reflux nephropathy is a congenital abnormality of the vesicoureteral system. When the child grows the ureters extend and the symptoms can improve. Secondary reflux nephropathy can be the consequence of failure of the bladder to empty properly, due to a blockage of failure of the bladder muscle.

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Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Vesicoureteral reflux

Signs & symptoms

Symptoms of reflux nephropathy usually include UTIs. Common signs for it may include a persistent urge to urinate, a burning sensation during urinating, fever, or pain in the wrists or abdomen.


Frequent cases or persistent urinary tract infection (UTI) should make your doctor suspect of a vesicoureteral reflux. After asking about your symptoms, medical history and performing a physical examination, your doctor may refer you to other necessary tests: Kidney and bladder ultrasound - this imaging method can detect structural abnormalities of your urinary system. X-ray of urinary tract system - this test uses X-rays of the bladder when it's full and when it's emptying to detect abnormalities.


Treatment of reflux nephropathy focuses on preventing the development of UTI. Prophylaxis antibiotics can prevent the UTI from ascending to the kidneys. The next line of treatment is surgery - a procedure to repair the defect in the valve between the bladder and each affected ureter.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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