What is it?

There are several causes of vitamin B12 deficiency, one of which is pernicious anemia, an autoimmune condition that prevents your body from absorbing enough vitamin B12. There are fewer red blood cells in your body carrying oxygen throughout your entire body if you do not have enough vitamin B12.
In pernicious anemia, your immune system attacks the mucosal linings of your stomach and nerve cells with antibodies. Vitamin B12 absorption is influenced by the immune response of your body.

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Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Pernicious Anemia

Signs & symptoms

In general, the longer you go without adequate vitamin B12, the more serious your symptoms will be. In the beginning, people may experience mild symptoms they may mistake for other common conditions. Among them are:

Constipation or diarrhea.
Standing up or exerting yourself causes lightheadedness.
Appetite loss.
The skin may appear pale (mild jaundice or yellowing of the skin or eyes).
Dyspnea, usually during exercise.
Having heartburn.
Bleeding gums or a swollen, red tongue.


As a first step, your healthcare provider will examine you closely and ask about your medical history so they can determine if you have any other conditions that may increase your risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.
Level of vitamin B12.
CBC (complete blood count)
Vitamin B12 deficiency is confirmed by high methylmalonic acid levels (MMA).


As vitamin B12 absorption is blocked, intramuscular vitamin B12 injections may be recommended by your physician. A high dose of oral B12 replacement may be prescribed later, once B12 stores have returned to normal. Your treatment will be monitored by them. If bacteria in your intestine prevent your body from absorbing vitamin B12, they may prescribe antibiotics.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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