What is it?

Fistula Involving Female Genital Tract, or a vaginal fistula, is an abnormal hole between the vagina to the urinary or digestive system. Types of fistulas include:
Ureterovaginal fistula- between the vagina and the ureters.
Urethrovaginal fistula- between the vagina and urethra.
Rectrovaginal fistula- between the vagina and the rectum, the last part of the colon which reserves the stool.
Colovaginal fistula- between the vagina and the colon.
Enterovaginal fistula- between the vagina and the small intestine.
It happens due to an injury in the vaginal wall, especially during childbirth, vaginal tears, abdominal and pelvic surgeries, cervical or colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crhon’s and Ulcerative Colitis, diverticulitis and radiation therapy to the pelvic area.

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Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Rectovaginal Fistula
- Ureterovaginal fistula
- Urethrovaginal fistula
- Colovaginal fistula
- Enterovaginal fistula

Signs & symptoms

Symptoms depend on the specific fistula but may include urine leakage or incontinence, skin irritation in the vulva, vagina or perineum, dyspareunia, urinary tract infections, abdominal pain, gas or stool leakage from the vagina, bleeding.


Diagnosis is based upon findings from medical history and physical examination. Further evaluation may include imaging tests like a fistulogram, urogram, pelvic MRI, cystoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy.


Treatment depends on the fistula’s type and may include antibiotics and surgical repairs of the fistula.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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