What is it?

Disorders and conditions of the tongue include:
Glossitis- tongue inflammation
Geographic tongue- a benign condition in which the tongue surface looks like a map
Median rhomboid glossitis- nodular area on the tongue which is missing the papillae.
Hypertrophy of tongue papillae- The papillae on the tongue are larger and may interfere with the person’s life. The swollen tongue could be normal or caused by injuries to the tongue, infections, smoking, stress, and poor oral hygiene.
Atrophy of tongue papillae- In which the surface of the tongue is missing papillae, which are the small bumps that appear normally on the tongue’s surface and contain the taste buds.
Plicated tongue- A benign condition in which deep fissures develop on the tongue’s surface. The reason for plicated tongue is unknown, but it is sometimes seen in other conditions such as malnutrition or Down syndrome.
Glossodynia- in which there is a burning sensation in the mouth, without any visible source for pain.

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Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Hypertrophy of Tongue Papillae
- Plicated Tongue
- Median Rhomboid Glossitis
- Persistent tuberculum impar

Signs & symptoms

Symptoms may include pain, burning sensation, numbness of the tongue, fissures on the tongue, patches on the tongue and dysfunction or change of taste.


Most of the tongue disorders are diagnosed based upon findings in physical and oral examination by either a dentist or a doctor. In some cases, further testing is recommended to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.


Treatment depends on the specific condition. Some conditions do not need any treatment, if there are no symptoms bothering the person who has it. Other conditions will be treated with medication, topical treatment, pain killers, antifungal therapy,and encourage good oral hygiene.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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