What is it?

There are several congenital anomalies of Upper alimentary tract, here we will discuss microglossia and macroglossia. Microglossia is the medical term for unusually small tongue. It is quite a rare condition. It sometimes presents with limb abnormalities as part of a hypoglossia-hypodactylia syndrome. The cause of macroglossia is not understood. Macroglossia is the medical term of a large tongue. Macroglossia may be caused by a variety of conditions. The most common causes are vascular malformation and muscular hypertrophy, such as in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Other congenital and acquired causes may include amyloidosis, down syndrome, hypothyroidism, mucopolysaccharidosis, neurofibromatosis, acromegaly, tumors and more.

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Congenital Anomalies of Upper Alimentary Tract.

Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Congenital Adhesions of Tongue
- Salivary Gland Absence
- Congenital Atresia of Salivary Duct
- Mouth and Pharynx Anomalies
- Tongue Anomaly Not Otherwise Specified
- Congenital Tracheoesophageal Fistula
- Esophageal body web
- Esophageal ring
- Esophageal web
- Imperforate esophagus
- Schatzkis ring
- Accessory Salivary Gland
- Gastric Anomalies
- Congenital Salivary Gland Fistula
- Congenital Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
- Constriction of pylorus
- Hypertrophy of pylorus
- Spasm of pylorus
- Stenosis of pylorus
- Stricture of pylorus
- Congenital Hiatus Hernia
- Diverticulum of Pharynx
- Congenital pharyngeal pouch
- Aglossia
- Esophageal Anomalies
- Cyst of esophagus
- Dilatation of esophagus
- Displacement of esophagus
- Diverticulum of esophagus
- Duplication of esophagus
- Esophageal fistula
- Esophageal pouch
- Giant esophagus
- Congenital Fissure of Tongue
- Double tongue
- Bifid tongue
- Tongue Tie
- Short frenulum of tongue
- Upper Gastrointestinal Anomalies

Signs & symptoms

Signs and symptoms of macroglossia include difficulty breathing, difficulty swallowing and eating, speech disruption, disrupted speech, drooling, sores on the corner of the mouth, crenated tongue, open bite malocclusion, mouth breathing, orthodontic problems and crenated tongue. Microglossia may also have similar symptoms, especially difficulty swallowing and eating, and speech impairment.


Diagnosis is done usually on a physical examination. Later, in order to find the cause for macroglossia, other exams may be done including abdominal US.


Treatment depends on the severity of the macroglossia, if it causes any symptoms, and the underlying cause for macroglossia. Sometimes treatment is not needed and in other cases a reduction glossectomy is done. There is no treatment for microglossia, sometimes orthodontic treatment is needed.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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