What is it?

Vulvar carcinoma in situ is (CIS), or Ta, is the earliest stage of squamous cell cancer of the vulva. In this early stage, the abnormal cells are found only in the outermost layer and have not yet invaded the deeper layers of the vulva. From this stage, the disease can progress to invasive carcinoma, if left untreated. Risk factors include older age, HPV infection, smoking, having a weakened immune system, precancerous conditions of the vulva or a skin condition in the vulva.

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Carcinoma in situ of Vulva.

Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Vulval intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3
- Cancer in situ of vulva
- VIN 3 Severe Vaginal Dysplasia

Signs & symptoms

The most common symptom of vulvar carcinoma in situ is itching. Other symptoms may include unusual vaginal bleeding, a lump or mass in the vulva, pelvic pain, and skin changing.


Diagnosis is based upon a physical examination of the pelvic and the vulva, and a biopsy from the lesion. For staging the disease, further imaging tests such as CT or PET-CT may be performed along with cystoscopy and proctoscopy to examine expansion to the rectum and bladder.


Treatment of vulvar carcinoma in situ may include surgical removal of the mass or the side of the vulva including lymph nodes. Other treatments may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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