What is it?

A malignant tumor, or cancer, is a condition in which cells in the body grow out of control. The term “malignant” indicates that there is a probability that the tumor will spread beyond the site where it initially developed.
Primary bone cancer is a rare type of cancer that begins in the bones (in opposed to bone metastases that originate in a different site of the body). The different types of primary bone cancers differ from each other by the cell from which they develop. Common types include:
* Osteosarcoma (Osteogenic Sarcoma) – the most common type, usually affects teenagers and young adults.
* Ewing’s Sarcoma - most commonly affects people aged between 10 and 20
* Chondrosarcoma – develops from cartilage cells, tends to affect adults aged over 40

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Signs & symptoms

Bone cancer can affect any bone, but most cases develop in the long bones of the legs or upper arms.
The main symptoms include:
* persistent bone pain that gets worse over time and continues into the night
* swelling and redness over a bone
* a noticeable lump over a bone
* fatigue
* a weak bone that breaks (fractures) more easily than normal


When a bone tumor is suspected according to your symptoms or physical exam, the goals of the diagnostic evaluation are to confirm or rule out the diagnosis of bone cancer, determine the type of tumor, evaluate disease extent and presence of metastases, and assess the feasibility of surgical resection. Diagnostic methods include:
* Imaging studies - an X-ray of the affected area, MRI, CT, PET or Bone scan.
* Biopsy – a sample of suspected cancerous tissue is taken using a needle or during an operation so it can be tested and analyzed under a microscope.


Treatment for bone cancer depends on the type of bone cancer you have, its size, how far it has spread and your general health. Your recommended treatment plan may include one or more of the following:
* surgery to remove the section of cancerous bone – it's often possible to reconstruct or replace the bone that's been removed, although amputation is occasionally necessary
* chemotherapy
* radiation therapy.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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