What is it?

Traumatic brain injury typically occurs due to a violent blow or jolt into the head or an object that goes through the brain tissue (a bullet, for example). Other causes include falls, vehicle related collisions, sport injuries, and explosive blasts. Symptoms and damage from the injury depend on its severity, and may even result in death or long-term complications. Complications may include coma, vegetative state, and brain death. There could be long term complications in communication, executive functioning, cognition, behavioral, emotional and sensory.

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Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Traumatic Brain injury
- Traumatic Brain Damage

Signs & symptoms

Symptoms of traumatic brain injury may include headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, drowsiness, speech problems, sensitivity so light or sound, blurred vision, tinnitus, loss of consciousness, memory problems, concentration problems, mood changes, depression, anxiety, seizures, dilation of pupils, numbness in the fingers or toes, confusion, and agitation.


People who suffer from traumatic brain injury are usually treated as an emergency. First, a glasgow coma scale score is given by the physical examination to evaluate the severity of the neurological damage. Then, imaging tests like a CT scan and an MRI are usually performed.


Treatment depends on the severity of the injury. Some injuries do not require any treatment, while others may take medications (anti-seizures, coma-inducing or diuretics) and some will need surgeries to repair skull fractures, stop bleeding, remove blood clots or relieve pressure.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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