What is it?

Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is a common eye disorder that causes damage to your central vision area, the macula. The macula is the part of the retina that is responsible for the central, high-resolution, color vision. In macular degeneration, the macula is slowly damaged leading to central vision loss. Risk factors include age over 65, a family history of macular degeneration, smoking, obesity and having cardiovascular disease
There are two types of macular degeneration;
Dry macular degeneration, the most common type of AMD, results from yellow deposits under the macula. These deposits are called drusen.
In wet macular degeneration, there are new blood vessels forming on your macula. These are fragile abnormal blood vessels growing in abnormal locations that tend to leak. The proliferation of these abnormal blood vessels is stimulated by a factor known as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This type of macular degeneration is usually preceded by dry macular degeneration.

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Additional names

This group contains additional names:
- Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD or ARMD)

Signs & symptoms

Macular degeneration is a progresive disease, meaning it gets worse over time. It is often not noticed in early stages. Symptoms include
*Reduced vision in the central visual field- the area seen when you look straight forward
*Distortions of straight lines in your field of vision
*Blurry vision
*Trouble recognizing faces
*Slow adaptation to light changes
Those with wet macular degeneration may also see blurry spots in their visual field due to bleeding from the abnormal blood vessels.


Your ophthalmologist can diagnose macular degeneration using a comprehensive eye exam. During the examination, the doctor will apply eye drops that dilate your pupils and allow good sight of the retina.
Fundus photography is often performed in order to document and enable good follow up.
Fluorescein angiography, a technique used for examining the blood circulation of the retina, is often used to detect blocked retinal blood vessels.
Optical Coherence Tomography, a technique that gives a high resolution image of the retina, is sometimes used to determine the retina’s thickness, show areas of fluid accumulation, and determine your response to treatment.


macular degeneration can not be cured. However, there are treatment options that slow progression.
If you are diagnosed with dry macular degeneration, treatment is usually limited.
The treatment for wet macular degeneration may include-

1. Injections anti-VEGF (Vascular endothelial growth factor) agents into the eye- these agents reduce growth of new abnormal blood vessels and slow disease progression.
2. Laser photocoagulation- The laser destroys abnormal new vessels and reduces disease progression.
3. Photodynamic therapy- During this procedure, the doctor injects a medication into your vein and then uses a laser to selectively destroy new abnormal blood vessels.

☝️ This is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decision.

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